WBL Manual

Work-Based Learning Manual

Glossary of Terms

Age Discrimination Act
This federal law was written to prevent discrimination against people because of age, specifically, to protect older people applying for jobs.

Affirmative Action
This federal law was designed to end discrimination against minorities, and it requires that minority students and job applicants receive the same opportunities as other students and job applicants. The statements declaring businesses to be equal opportunity employers and schools to provide equal opportunity education, comply with affirmative action.

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) 
This federal law prohibits employers, schools and agencies from discriminating against individuals with disabilities regarding employment, public services (especially transportation), public accommodations and telephone services. Access issues such as wheel chair ramps, TDD communications, and Braille signs are addressed in this act.

Apprenticeship offers students the combination of paid, on-the-job training and related classroom training in a specified career. Apprenticeship programs are registered with the United States Department of Labor and are designed to culminate in certified journeyman-level skills attainment and nationally recognized credentials. An apprenticeship is sponsored by an employer, who is responsible for providing journeyman-level mentorship and supervision to the apprentice and seeing that the apprentice completes all required course work.

Areas of Study
The Secondary School Taxonomy (maintained by the National Center of Educational Statistics) is organized into four distinct curricula – Academic, Vocational, Enrichment, and Special Education. The "vocational" – or CTE – curriculum is subdivided into three broad categories: Family and Consumer Sciences Education (FACSE [non-occupational]), General Labor Market Preparation (GLMP), and Special Labor Market Preparation (SLMP) – i.e., career-tech proper. In Utah, the "career-tech proper" curriculum is organized into seven areas of study:

  • Agricultural Education
  • Business and Marketing Education
  • Family and Consumer Sciences Education
  • Health Science Education
  • Information Technology Education
  • Skilled and Technical Sciences Education
  • Technology and Engineering Education

Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT)
The Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training is an agency of the federal United States Department of Labor that governs apprenticeships. Apprentices and their employers are registered with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.

Career and Technical Education (CTE)
Career and Technical Education offers a sequence of courses that provide individuals with the academic and technical knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for further education and for careers. These courses include competency-based applied learning that contribute to the academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning, problem-solving skills, work attitudes, general employability skills, technical skills and occupation-specific skills. Formerly called Vocational Education.

Career Apprenticeship $tarts Here (CA$H)
This program was developed to provide high school students with a carefully supervised combination of on-the-job training and classroom instruction to prepare them to achieve their career goals. See the definition for apprenticeship.

Career Fields
The career fields are aligned with the Holland Codes, which is a way of grouping occupations to help students focus on their career interests. When the relationship between personal characteristics (interests and work values) and potential occupations is apparent, a student more readily engages in his or her career planning process. Making the relationship between a student’s personal characteristics (interests and work values) and potential occupations helps students more readily engage in the career planning process. The Utah Career Fields are as follows:

  • Technical (Realistic)
  • Scientific (Investigative)
  • Arts and Recreation (Artistic)
  • Social Humanitarian (Social)
  • Marketing and Administration (Enterprising)
  • Business Operations (Conventional)

Career Fair
Career fair activities bring the workplace to the school. Employers representing various industry or career areas are invited to come to the schools where they set up booths or display various equipment or other career related items for students to see. Students have the opportunity to visit different demonstrations, hear presentations and talk to industry representatives about various aspects of the represented occupation or industry. Variations on career fairs include Vehicle Days, Uniform Days, Hat Days and Tool Days.

Career Pathway
Career Pathways show students a direct connection between doing well in high school and being able to transition smoothly to postsecondary opportunities or getting a good job when they graduate. Students who focus on a Career Pathway acquire the skills necessary for entry into well-paid careers with high potential for rapid financial growth, increased levels of responsibility, and a high degree of personal satisfaction.

Utah Career Pathways align with and are categorized by the national Career Clusters®. Each Career Pathway culminates in an industry recognized credential of value. 

Clinical Work Experience
Clinical work experience consists of structured practical application of previously studied theory. These experiences usually take place in medical settings, where students have opportunities to practice the skills they have learned in the classroom and may be a combination of course work and part-time workplace experiences. Clinical work experiences are different from other structured work experiences in that they are required and graded as part of the student's certification program and some require on-site supervision by a certified teacher or faculty member.

Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance Program (CCGP)
Designed to assist K-12 students through specific self-appraisal and self-improvement activities, Utah’s CCGP promotes effective planning to meet each student's personal education and career goals. The CCGP Student Outcomes drive the delivery of direct services to 100% of Utah students through the Guidance Curriculum, Individual Planning and Responsive Services activities

Educator Internships
Educator internships are educational experiences at a work site for teachers or administrators. These usually involve actual participation in the function of a business for the purpose of individual study, skill development, professional growth and awareness of business/industry trends. Such experiences help teachers adapt curriculum and teaching to reflect current workplace applications, practices and needs and also make course work more meaningful and relevant for students.

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
This federal law is designed to protect youth from employment in conditions detrimental to their health and well being. The law defines child labor restrictions and sets guidelines for youth workers aged 14-17.

Field Study
Field study is a career awareness and exploration activity where groups of students visit community work sites or other settings. These short, on-site visits allow students to gain first-hand information related to specific topics of classroom study or areas of interest.

Guest Speaker
A guest speaker is a business professional or industry specialist, who comes into a classroom to present firsthand information about a specific career area or provide reinforcement activities that support the Utah State Core Curriculum and to applied concepts currently being studied. A guest speaker can be used throughout the career development process from awareness to application and are valuable at any grade level.

Hazardous Occupation (HO)
The Fair Labor Standards Act states that minors may perform all work except in seventeen occupations considered too hazardous for youth under age 18. Some exceptions apply for youth aged 16 and 17 with formal work agreements such as apprenticeships.

Individual Education Program (IEP)
An IEP is a statement written by a team of professionals, including the parent, describing a student's current level of functioning, needed special education and related services, annual goals and benchmarks and decisions regarding specified issues (as applicable) relating to an individual student's educational program.

Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA)
This federal law requires that a "free and appropriate public education and related services" be provided to children with disabilities. Work-Based Learning is a related service. Anyone providing a service to children with disabilities must work closely with the special education team at the school.

A student internship is an experience where a student, 11th-12th grade, works for an employer for a specified period of time to learn about a particular industry or occupation. Internship programs extend formal classroom learning into the community. Internships are linked to a related internship class, paid or unpaid (usually unpaid), time limited, connected to career goals and the SEOP, and offer opportunities to explore career options in a particular field of work.

Job Shadow
A job shadow is a work site experience during which a student spends time, typically three to six hours, one-on-one with an employee observing daily activities and asking questions about the job and industry. Job shadowing is a career awareness and exploration activity that allows students to gather information on a wide variety of career possibilities. Such exploration activities help students make good career decisions and assist them in focusing their studies once a career interest is identified.

Mentorship is a formal, long-term relationship between a student and a professional role model who provides support and encouragement to the student. The mentor assists the student in learning specific skills and/or provides experiences for the student to explore career interests.

National Occupation Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC)
There are 12 competencies established by the National Occupation Information Coordinating Committee as national career development guidelines. These 12 competencies and their indicators are used in Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance Program curricula.

Nontraditional Occupation
The term nontraditional occupation refers to occupations and jobs in which either men or women make up 25 percent or less of the total number of workers.

Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
This federal law enforces the standards of health and safety at the work site.

A portfolio is a collection of work that documents a student's educational performance over time. It typically includes a range of materials selected by the student. A brief introduction and summary may describe how the portfolio was assembled and what was learned in the compilation process.

School-Based Enterprise
A school-based enterprise allows students to put into practice what they learn in the classroom by running an actual small business. The money generated from the business can be used to fund student organizations, materials, equipment, facilities, improvement and other items necessary to maintain or improve the program or school. While participating in these activities, students learn overall business operations such as managing costs, ordering supplies, working under pressure, conserving supplies and maintaining facilities. Junior Achievement can assist a school in setting up a school-based enterprise.

Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)
In 1991, the U.S. Department of Labor convened the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills to examine the demands of the workplace and to determine whether the current and future workforce is capable of meeting those demands. The commission reported that reading, writing and mathematical computation are still vital to a strong workforce, while adding personal qualities and thinking skills to the critical skills list. Personal qualities include relating to others, individual responsibility and self-esteem. Thinking skills include critical thinking and problem-solving. These skills and qualities are reflected in the USBE Life Skills.

Section 504
Section 504 is a clause in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requiring that, "no otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."

Service Learning
Service learning combines community service with classroom instruction. It focuses on critical, reflective thinking as well as personal and civic responsibility. As an instructional strategy, service learning enhances already existing curricula. It offers teachers a tool that complements learning and increases educational relevancy. It is an approach that combines academic learning with service activities that are structured to address real needs in the community. Service learning offers youth a chance to solve problems and become involved in the community. It opens the door for students to practice what they have learned in school and allows students, as a learner, to make an impact through serving others. This teaching strategy gives students an active role in the community and provides contextual, real world learning experience. Service experiences should be engaging and meaningful. It is engaging when students are actively involved in selecting, planning and carrying out the activity. It is meaningful when it is tied to learning objective and meets real needs identified by the students, teachers and service recipients.

Student Education Occupation Plan (SEOP)
A Utah-specific format for individualized student planning that focuses on recognizing student accomplishments and strengths and student and parent/guardian planning, monitoring, and managing education and career development in grades 7-12.

Student Education Plan (SEP)
Each elementary student is required to develop a Student Education Plan with guidance from school teachers, counselors and parents to set goals, encourage self-awareness and support career-awareness experiences.

Supporting Programs
Programs to help strengthen the ties between school and work by enhancing students’ Career Field and Pathway exploration and training. These include the following:

  • Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs)
  • Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance
  • Concurrent Enrollment
  • Skill Certificate Programs
  • Work-Based Learning

Title IX
Title IX of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in all educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance or that have students receiving federal financial aid. Students and employees are protected by this law.

Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act (UOSHA)
This state law enforces the standards of health and safety at the work site.

Work-Based Learning 
Work-Based Learning is one of the myriad components in a successful educational system. It refers to education an experience that occurs in cooperation with business/industry and other community partners. Work-Based Learning is defined as a coherent sequence of career awareness, exploration, job training and experience activities that are coordinated with school-based learning activities. There are Work-Based Learning activities appropriate for every grade level to support students in developing career awareness, exploring careers options, developing appropriate workplace skills and relating academic skills to real-world applications. There are many types of Work-Based Learning activities.

Legal Issues


Each school/district may use the following terms differently. However, it is important that each coordinator understand his/her school's/district's terms and apply the guides below in determining how to protect the school/district from liability issues.

Work Release
No school credit issued. Work release allows students to leave the school to go to work. Schools should make sure district policy is followed when allowing students to leave the school for work. Most districts require a Parent Release Form relieving the school of responsibility for the student during the hours they are released from school for work. Work release is not a Work-Based Learning activity.

Paid or non-paid work related experiences matching a student's College and Career Ready Plan and related course work. Be sure to follow all child labor laws, liability issues and state requirements before placing students on an internship.

Liability Issues

These experiences give minimal liability exposure to school districts. Employers are legally obligated to provide worker's compensation insurance for employees. In addition to paying for an employee for work-related injuries on a no-fault basis, employers have immunity from civil claims for an employee's expenses. For paid experiences, it is the employer's responsibility to be sure the work a student is completing meets all child labor law requirements. If you give credit to a student for working in a position that violates child labor laws, both you and the district may be held liable for any injuries or other problems that arise. Never put the district in a position where they are party, by giving credit, to an illegal activity.

Examples of Illegal Activities:

  • Automotive
    Students cannot work underneath an auto that is on a hydraulic lift.
  • Cabinetmaking/Millwork
    Students cannot use saws except if the student is in a work experience program and currently taking a related course such a woods or cabinetmaking.
  • Driving
    Students under the age of 18-years old cannot operate a motor vehicle as a regular part of their job. See Teen Driving Limits in Resources.
  • Food Service
    Students cannot operate meat slicers.
  • Warehousing/Construction
    Student cannot run power equipment, forklifts or work in a warehouse.

Under Utah Senate Bill 28, students who are involved in unpaid exploration and training activities in an employment setting are covered by district's worker's compensation. Specific district procedures should be part of an orientation provided to the student prior to placement on the unpaid work site. In addition, work site supervisors should have a copy of district procedures.

Utah Senate Bill 28 and Utah State Board Rule 277-915

R277-915: Work-based Learning Programs
Utah Office of Administrative Rules

Intern, for the purpose of this rule and bill only, has special meaning. An intern is a student enrolled in a school-sponsored career exploration program under Section 53A-28-102 (or 53B-16-402 for a student sponsored by an institution of higher education) which involves both classroom instruction and work experience for which the student receives no compensation.

Utah Senate Bill 28 states a student will not be subject to an employer's worker's compensation benefits if the student is in fact an intern under the definition of the bill. An intern, as defined in the bill, is considered to be a volunteer government worker of the sponsoring school solely for the purpose of receiving worker's compensation medical benefits.

Rule 277-915 further states that for students to be interns, the district that establishes a Work-Based Learning program shall establish a policy for the program's activities, which provides procedures and criteria for at least the following issues:

  • training for student interns, student intern supervisors, and cooperating employers regarding health and safety procedures in the workplace.
  • transportation options for students to and from the work site–USBE and Risk Management indicate that school districts should leave transportation to and from any Work-Based Learning experience up to the parents. This information must be noted in your course forms and handbook.
  • appropriate supervision by employers at the work site.
  • adequate insurance coverage provided either by the student, the program or the school district–non paid Work-Based Learning students are covered under Senate Bill 28–no other insurance should be required.
  • appropriate supervision and evaluation of the student by the local education agency.
  • involvement and approval by the student's parents in the Work-Based Learning intern program.

Equal Opportunity

As a Work-Based Learning coordinator, you need to be aware of the equal opportunity laws. An equal opportunity statement at the bottom or on the back of your contract/agreement and all related forms can be used to inform students, parents and employers of the law. Neither the school district nor the participating employer can participate in discriminating practices. Employers must sign off on this as part of their responsibilities as outlined on the Training Agreement.

_______________ District is committed to providing educational and employment opportunities to students without regard to race, color, sex, religion, age, national origin or disability in accordance with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Title XI of the Educational Amendment of 1972, Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and the Americans with Disabilities Act.

Child Labor Laws

The child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act are designed to protect the educational opportunities of youths and prohibit their employment in jobs and under conditions detrimental to their health and well-being. Federal and state child labor provisions address:

  • minimum ages for general and specific types of employment
  • prohibit work during night hours for 14-year and 15-year old students
  • prohibit certain kinds of employment (17 hazardous occupations)
  • maximum daily and weekly hours of work permitted for 14-year and 15-year old students

For more information on child labor laws, visit the United States Department of Labor.

Working Hours for Minors
14-year and 15-year old's when school is in session

  • Students may work three hours per school day and eight hours per non-school days, but no more than 18 hours per week
  • Students may not work before 7 a.m. or after 7 p.m.
  • Students may not work during school hours

14-year and 15-year old's when school is not in session

  • Students may work eight hours per day but no more than forty hours per week
  • From June 1st through Labor Day, students may work during the time period of 7 a.m. to 9 p.m.

16-year and 17-year old's:

  • No restrictions on work hours

Meal periods of at least 30-minutes must be provided no later than five hours and one minute after the minor reports to work. Fourteen and fifteen-year old's must be fully relieved of work duties during this time. Sixteen and seventeen-year old employees may work during a meal period, but must be paid for their time.

Rest periods of a least 15 minutes must be provided during each four hours (or major portion) of work time.

Hazardous Occupations

Students under 18 may not be employed in any of the 17 Hazardous Occupations. Please refer to federal child labor laws for specific information. Coordinators should call the Department of Labor in Salt Lake City to get a complete copy of the child labor laws or check the United States Department of Labor or YouthRules! websites. You will find that there are no age exceptions for eleven of the occupations. However, six of the occupations allow students under the age of 18 if they are on a registered apprenticeship or are involved in a state approved cooperative education program.

Seventeen Hazardous Occupations

  1. Manufacturing and Storing Explosives
  2. Moto Vehicle Driving and Outside Helper
  3. Coal Mining
  4. Logging and Saw Milling
  5. Power-Driven Wood-Working Machines
  6. Exposure to Radioactive Substances and to Ionizing Radiations
  7. Power-Driven Hoisting Equipment
  8. Power-Driven Metal-Forming, Punching and Shearing Machines
  9. Mining, Other Than Coal Mining
  10. Meat-Packing or Processing
  11. Power-Driven Bakery Machines
  12. Power-Driven Paper-Products Machines
  13. Manufacturing of Brick, Tile and Kindred Products
  14. Power-Driven Circular Saws, Band Saws and Guillotine Shears
  15. Wrecking, Demolition and Ship-Breaking Operations
  16. Roofing Operations
  17. Excavation Operations

Hazardous Occupations Exceptions

Under strict guidelines there can be exceptions to the following hazardous occupations:

  • #5 Power-Driven Wood-Working Machines
  • #8 Power-Driven Metal-Forming, Punching and Shearing Machines
  • #10 Meat Packing or Processing (Including Power Driven Meat Slicing Machines)
  • #12 Power-Driven Paper-Products Machines
  • #14 Power-Driven Circular Saws, Band Saws and Guillotine Shears
  • #16 Roofing Operations
  • #17 Excavation Operations

Student apprentices and some cooperative education students can be exempted from the above hazardous occupations. Read the child labor requirements carefully before placing students in these areas. The balances of the 17 hazardous occupations have no exemptions.

Hazardous Occupation #7 is listed as "Power-Driven Hoisting Equipment." It is not listed as one of the exemptions possible for cooperative education student learners. However, the quote below comes directly from the Field Operations Handbook for the Wage and Hour Division of the United States Department of Labor. Therefore, students enrolled in auto programs at the high school and registered through a state-approved cooperative education program at the high school can be on a paid or non-paid Work-Based Learning experience in a service station or a mechanics garage. Care should be taken by the school coordinator to ensure the safety of student learners. As with all Work-Based Learning experiences, a school coordinator should visit the site monthly.

United States DOL Wage and Hour
Rev. 599 
Field Operations Handbook - 12/28/93 

"HO #7 does not apply to "grease rack" lifts used in gasoline service stations, tire stores and other establishments servicing automobiles, since such lifts were not included in the investigation which led to HO #7. Similarly, service jack, hand jacks, and air compressors are outside the scope of HO #7 and the other HO's, as are tire changers, truck tire changers and wheel balancers. The hoists commonly used on tow trucks and other hoists (if over a ton capacity) and cranes used in such establishments are subject to HO #7."

Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)

When is a Work-Based Learning student considered to be an employee?

  • Any student working in a business (including a Work-Based Learning program through the school) must be paid if they are clearly providing benefit to the business. See Employers Instructions in Resources.

When is a Work-Based Learning student considered not to be an employee? A student will not be considered an employee if all the following criteria are met:

  • The student receives ongoing instruction at the employer's work site and receives close on-site supervision throughout the learning experience, with the result that any productive work the student would perform would be offset by the burden to the employer for the training and supervision provided.
  • The placement of the student at the work site during the learning experience does not result in the displacement of any regular employee. The student is not entitled to a job at the conclusion of the learning experience although employers should not be discouraged from offering employment to successful graduates.
  • The employer, student and parent or guardian understand that the student is not entitled to wages or other compensation for the time spent in the learning experience although a student may receive a stipend for expenses such as books or tools.

Note: Any student on a non-paid Work-Based Learning experience must be assigned an on-site mentor by the business. Student apprentices and cooperative education students working in any of the approved 17 Hazardous Occupations must also be assigned an on-site business mentor. If students are running hazardous equipment, the mentor must be standing next to the student monitoring that all safety measures are being observed. 

Wages and the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
United States Department of Labor

School records are considered confidential and cannot be released to employers without parental permission. If you feel an employer needs to know about handicaps, learning disabilities, etc. you should obtain a parent signature on your district's approved Release of Information Form, which can be found in Sample Forms.

Sexual Harassment
Sexual harassment is defined as unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors and other verbal or physical contact of a sexual nature. Although sexual harassment is usually viewed as an issue for women, it should be noted that men also experience sexual harassment and people can be harassed by members of their own sex. Under Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidelines, such conduct constitutes sexual harassment when:

  • An employment condition such as favorable treatment, work assignments, pay or promotion is offered by an employer or supervisor to an employee in exchange for sexual favors - quid pro quo.


  • A hostile work environment exists in which unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature creates an uncomfortable work environment for an employee. Examples of this conduct include sexually explicit talk or jokes, sexually provocative photographs, foul or hostile language or inappropriate touching.

Use the Teens in the Workforce presentation to teach the above material. See Resources.

It is the responsibility of the parent/guardian to provide transportation to and from the Work-Based Learning site. Do not ask for auto insurance information. Let the parents decide how a student will get to his/her Work-Based Learning assignment.

Site Contact
State and federal laws require interns, work experience and cooperative education students to be monitored at the work site on a monthly basis by school personnel. This procedure holds true any time a school is giving credit for Work-Based Learning experiences.

Work Site Evaluation Form
Utah state law requires that work sites be assessed for safety before a student is placed on a Work-Based Learning experience. The Work Site Assessment Form is an example of what you might use to assess the work site. A copy of this form can be found in Sample Forms.

Student Responsibilities

  • Sign and abide by specific agreements/forms such as the Training Agreement
  • Meet employer and discuss organization expectations related to items such as dress, timeliness, maturity and safety
  • Complete aptitude, interest and skills inventories as needed
  • Develop goals and objectives using a skills/learning grid
  • Complete assignments, evaluations, required forms and other activities assigned by the Work-Based Learning coordinator
  • Participate actively at the work site and at the school
  • Represent the school and program positively and responsibly in the community
  • Make satisfactory academic progress
  • Inform Work-Based Learning coordinator if any problem occurs

Note: The Buck Institute in Navato, California produced three handbooks you might consider using as part of your training for students, employers and supervisors. See Resources.

Employer Responsibilities

  • Sign and abide by specific agreements/forms such as the Training Agreement
  • Provide work experience that supports the educational and career goals of the student
  • Arrange for a work site supervisor

Parent Responsibilities

  • Sign and abide by specific agreements/forms such as the Training Agreement
  • Encourage the student to have good attendance
  • Be involved and informed about your student's progress in the Work-Based Learning experience
  • Notify the school of any concerns or problems

School Responsibilities

  • Promote the many facets of Work-Based Learning
  • Orient students and employers to their roles and responsibilities
  • Conduct orientations and/or seminars that may include pre-employment and work readiness training and job search skills
  • Set up, coordinate and/or provide basic safety training as appropriate to the placement
  • Review and implement the Work-Based Learning policies and procedures of the district
  • Keep accurate and complete data
  • Student Application, Training Agreement, Student Commitment Form, Time Sheets, Employer Evaluations and Student Evaluations
  • Hold advisory council meetings

Advisory Councils/Committees

Input from representatives from all of the stakeholders in the Work-Based Learning system is essential to the success of the endeavor. This committee should be composed of representatives of K-12 + education, business, industry, students, parents, economic development and chamber of commerce. An advisory council comprised of representatives from these groups can assist the supervisor/ coordinator by:

  • Identifying program goals and objectives
  • Furnishing equipment and supplies
  • Assisting with public relations efforts
  • Providing community feedback
  • Identifying community training needs
  • Promoting Work-Based Learning
  • Assisting with student placements
  • Updating school supervisor/coordinator
  • Developing the Work-Based Learning structure
  • Evaluating programs and work sites

As a very minimum, advisory councils should meet at least twice per year.

Work Permits

The state of Utah does not require students under the age of 18 to have a "Work Permit" from the school before they can work. Some states do require school issued "Work Permit." Some businesses, especially those who have retail outlets in multiple states, may ask the school for a work permit. Do Not Issue Work Permits!

Federal child labor laws indicate that for businesses to protect themselves from hiring underage students the business should ask for either a birth certificate or an age certificate. As a government agency you can provide a "Certificate of Age" to a student. This certificate should be on file with the business as long as the student is employed.

A "Certificate of Age" only verifies a student's age as shown on the school's records. The business is responsible to determine if the work to be done or the hours to be worked is a legal activity for any particular student. Birth date information must come from school records, not from the student.
Information to be included on a "Certificate of Age."

  • Student Name
  • Social Security Number
  • This certifies that according to the school records, the above named student was born on:
  • Month, Day, Year
  • Issued by
  • School District
  • Signed by Issuing Officer

Local Board Sample Policy

Proposed, Provo City School District Policy and Procedures, Work-Based Learning Board Approved, December 1997

1. Purpose

To implement Utah State Board of Education rules, which direct the Provo School District Board of Education to implement a policy regarding Work-Based Learning programs for secondary school students. The rule is authorized under Article X, Section 3 which vests general control and supervision of public education in the Board.

To provide direction to schools as they provide Work-Based Learning programs and to establish criteria.

2. Definition of Terms

"Careful Supervision" is defined as providing training safeguards and workplace supervision.

"Cooperative Education"

"Introductory Cooperative Education" means a structured method of instruction in basic work place learning. It is designed as a beginning work experience where high school students practice basic skills of appropriate employer/employee relations, team work, customer service, and work assignment responsibilities. The work assignment does not necessarily relate to the student's career goal or academic preparation and school credit is limited to one semester and one period. It is a paid experience and the training student is referred to as a basic trainee.

"Advanced Cooperative Education" means a structured method of instruction whereby students coordinate their high school studies with a job in a field related to their academic and occupational preparation and goals. It is a paid experience and the training student is referred to as a career trainee.

"Career Internship" means a structured method of instruction whereby students train with an employer for an occupation relative to their occupational interest, academic preparation and career goal. An employer site mentor supervises the student intern in workplace activities. Activities may include learning a variety of skills related to different job stations/levels within an occupation, participation in a company special project or learning advanced skills to a specific single occupation. It is an unpaid experience and the training student is referred to as a career intern.

"School-to-Registered Apprenticeship" (a federal program, operated through the Mountainland Region Applied Technology Education Consortium) means a structured method of instruction whereby a student age 16 or older participates as an apprentice in a specific occupation training program through a sponsoring employer. Upon successful completion of the training and of the prior identified classroom course work, a student is awarded nationally recognized journeyman status in that specific occupation. It is a paid experience and the training student is referred to as an apprentice.

"Job Shadowing" means an opportunity for a student to follow an employee at a company for part(s) of one or more days to learn about a particular occupation or job assignment. It is recommended for middle school and early high school students as part of career exploration activities. It may be implemented in context with a particular course of study. Generally, this is an unpaid experience.

"Service-Based Learning" means a method of instruction which combines community service with a structured school-based opportunity emphasizing the connections between service experiences and academic learning. A student participating in service-based learning program is referred to as a service intern.

"Work-Based Learning" means activities that involve actual work experience or connect classroom learning to workplace learning.

"School-Based Enterprise" means a business set up on a school site and run by supervised students. Students learn to apply "practical" skills in the production of goods or services for sale or use by others.

"Student Education Occupation Plan (SEOP)" means a primary strategy for recognizing student accomplishments and strengths and for planning, monitoring, and managing education and career development in 7-12 grades. This is achieved through an ongoing partnership involving students, parents, school counselors, and other school personnel.

"Work site" or "Workplace" means the actual location where employment/training occurs for a particular occupation(s), or an environment that simulates all aspects/elements of that employment, for instance school-based enterprises.

"Parent(s)" is the person(s) who has legal guardianship responsibilities for the student.

3. Policy

Under the direction of the superintendent, school principals are authorized to administer this policy in their respective schools. This document focuses on the Work-Based Learning component of School-to-Careers to further define and outline approved procedures. Work-Based Learning opportunities include, but may not be limited to: job shadowing, internship, cooperative education, service-based learning, school-based enterprise, and (federal) school-to registered apprenticeship.

Student Eligibility

For Work-Based Learning activities, except possibly job shadowing and introductory cooperative education, the Student Education Occupation Plan (SEOP) is used as a qualifying indicator for students to participate in a Work-Based Learning experience. The SEOP indicates a student's occupational interest and classroom preparation for a community site training experience in a selected career field. From the SEOP information, students are matched with cooperating employers - who provide at their business sites, career training experiences for the students. Eligible students participate on a "space available" basis.

Prior to or concurrently with Work-Based Learning, students are to receive instruction on pre-selected objectives derived from the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report and/or from the Utah State Office of Education Critical Workplace Skills curriculum.

Student Records

The following documents must be completed and on file at the school for students participating in Work-Based Learning (exceptions may apply to students participating in job-shadowing):

Student Online Education Program (SEOP)

Student Application

Documentation of SCANS and/or Critical Workplace Skills curricula

Student Job Activities Grid and Work site


Training Agreement between Student, Parent(s), Employer, and Education Institution

Student Work Record

Student Evaluation

Training for Students, Student Supervisors, and Cooperating Employers Regarding Health Hazards and Safety Procedures in the Workplace

Students will be informed of safety and health hazards in the workplace prior to the student leaving the school. Students will not be placed in training sites, except under "careful supervision" and in accordance with federal child labor laws.

Employers will assure a safe work environment and will discuss all safety issues or concerns with the education supervisor during a review of the work site and prior to the student work-based learning experience.

Employers will be required to receive training relevant to the Work-Based Learning experience which will be provided through a Mountainland Regional Education Consortia.

Standards and Procedures for Approval of Off-Campus Work Sites

Work-site experiences may be provided through a cooperating employer in the public sector, private sector, through service learning or school-based enterprises.

Work-Based Learning may be paid or unpaid. Paid and unpaid experiences will follow guidelines outlined in the document, "Child Labor Requirements in Nonagricultural Occupations under the Fair Labor Standards Act, US Department of Labor, WH-1330, revised August 1990."
The School-to-Registered Apprenticeship program is operated regionally through the Mountainland Applied Technology Education Coordinating Committee (A-TECC). Student training follows federal Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training guidelines.
Adhering to the intent of the U. S. Department of Labor document, "Employment Relationship Under the Fair Labor Standards Act, WH Publication 1297, (Reprinted August 1985), an unpaid intern may not: (a) displace a regular employee, (b) fill a vacancy that a new hire would normally fill, (c) be given exclusive duties to the disadvantage of a regular employee that would normally be assigned those duties, nor (d) perform services that clearly bring profit to the business.

Employers will assume responsibility for meaningful training.

Refer to 3.3.2

Refer to 3.3.3

Student Transportation

Students participating in school organized career awareness field trips are transported by school district approved carriers.

Students participating in Work-Based Learning programs (except as noted in 3.5.1), the determination of the method for transporting students to and from the work site is the parents' responsibility.

Appropriate Supervision by Employers at the Work Site. The cooperating employer/supervisor will:

provide "careful supervision" at the work site for student training,

assume responsibility for meaningful training,

communicate on a regular basis with the education supervisor,

consult the program coordinator/teacher regarding problems related to the work experience; if immediate action is not critical, contact the program coordinator/teacher before considering a student's (1) suspension from an assigned work site, or (2) transfer to another work site, or (3) termination.

record attendance and performance of the student trainee,

meet with school personnel to provide evaluation of trainees' work,

conform to state and federal labor laws,

have workers' compensation under which a trainee is covered (if paid experience).

Insurance Coverage

For paid work employment, work injuries and occupational disease insurance benefits are covered by the employer's workers' compensation.

For unpaid work experiences, work injuries and occupational disease insurance benefits are covered by the local educational agency's workers' compensation as specified by Utah SB 28.

The determination of additional insurance coverage for the student is the parents' responsibility.

Appropriate Supervision and Evaluation of the Student by the Local Education Agency
The education supervisor will:

approve the cooperating employer work site and training,

inform students of safety and health hazards in the workplace prior to the student leaving the school,

assure "careful supervision" of the student at the training site,

coordinate with the employer on student training and evaluation.

Appropriate Involvement and Approval by the Student's Parent(s) in the Work-based Learning Program. The parent(s) will:

partner with the school, school counselor, school personnel, student, by participating in the SEOP process,

support the student's participation in the Work-Based Learning program,

determine the method of transporting students to and from the work site,

assume responsibility for the student's released time from school.

Marketing Your Program

For schools to gain the support of the community and nurture effective relationships with employers and community organizations, a full range of marketing activities should be undertaken. This section of the manual focuses on two aspects of marketing your Work-Based Learning program:

Program Promotion

Below you will find a list of opportunities to market your Work-Based Learning program to the different stakeholders involved.

Promotion to Program Consumers


  • College and Career Ready Plan
  • Back to School Night
  • School Orientation Meetings
  • Registration Packets
  • School and PTA Newsletters


  • Classroom Presentations
  • College and Career Ready Plan
  • Student Registration
  • School Newspaper
  • Bulletin Board – Highlight an Intern


  • Faculty Meetings
  • Classroom Presentations
  • Nominating Teacher for Each Intern
  • E-mail

Business Community:

  • Attend and Present at Local Business Meetings: Chamber of Commerce, Rotary Club, Lions Club, Kiwanis Club, etc.
  • Present to Professional Associations: Medical, Accounting, Legal, etc.
  • Distribute Request for Interns Form to Local Businesses

Promotion Ideas

General Promotion Ideas:

  • Create Brochures
  • Share Intern Presentations
  • Sponsor Open Houses

District Personnel/School Board/Legislator Promotion Ideas:

  • Present at Local School Board Meetings
  • Host Site Visits with Intern Panels, Include Parents in Panel

Employer Promotion Ideas:

  • Distribute Employee Training Packets
  • Use Successful Partners to Recruit Their Peers
  • Show Appreciation for Business Partners - Thank You Cards, Gift Certificates, Candy, Christmas Cards, Pens, Notepads, Recognition Certificates, etc.
  • Keep a Database with Name, Address, Phone Number of Current Employers

Additional Promotion Ideas

The following promotion ideas promote involvement of multiple key groups. Activities should be used based on identified needs, wants and available funding.

Written Materials: 

  • Newspapers, Brochures, Business Profile, Employer Bulletins, Fliers, Mailers

Visual Recognition: 

  • Career Fairs, Student Portfolios, Publicity

Personal Contacts: 

  • District/Regional Coordination Meetings, Announcement, Open Houses

Work Site Development

Identify Potential Business Partners:

  • Gather information about potential employers through personal contacts and professional organizations. A Request for Intern Form can be used to facilitate this purpose.
  • Network with friends and co-workers. Many people have work site contacts among friends and family. Do not underestimate the value of these contacts.
  • Survey local organizations. Find out the types of Work-Based Learning activities organizations in your community are willing to sponsor.
  • Coordinate with community organizations such as your local chamber of commerce and the Utah Department of Workforce Services.
  • Research each organization. Gather information such as the number of employees, services or products provided, job opportunities, contact names, information about other similar companies or organizations, etc.

Additional sources for identifying and targeting employers include:

  • Alumni
  • Business Publications
  • Chamber of Commerce
  • Churches
  • Civic Organizations
  • Federal Agencies
  • Human Resource Departments
  • Internet
  • New Business License Lists
  • Non-profit Organizations
  • Parents of Students
  • Private Employment Agencies
  • Professional Organizations and Associations
  • Small Business Development Center
  • Telephone Books
  • Utah Department of Workforce Services
  • Want Ads
  • Workforce Investment Act (WIA)

Standards and Assurances

Work-Based Learning programs offered in Utah's public education system must meet state program standards.

Assurances Checklist

Utah State Board of Education (USBE) Rule R277-916-6 states, “Work-Based Learning (WBL) shall be integrated into all levels of the education delivery system and shall be coordinated within the cones of the district and between regions.”

For purposes of this document, the following definition will apply to Work-Based Learning programs:

  • Work-Based Learning is a coherent sequence of career awareness, exploration, job training and workplace experience activities that are coordinated with school-based learning activities.
  • There are Work-Based Learning activities appropriate for every grade level, K-12, to support students in developing career awareness, exploring career options, developing appropriate workplace skills and relating academic skills to real world applications.

This checklist is part of the annual Work-Based Learning Funding Application. It serves a dual purpose of self-evaluation to determine program strengths and weaknesses and to provide information to the Utah State Board of Education (USBE) in order to meet technical assistance needs. This checklist will also be discussed when district/charter school and/or USBE staff make program approval monitoring visits to the schools.

Assurances Checklist Evaluation Document

Achievement Ratings

Using the Achievement Ratings Scale, circle the number that best describes the degree to which your school meets the quality indicators for the program standards.

4 – indicates Superior quality
Commendations will be made at the discretion of the program specialist.

3 – indicates Good quality
Comments will be made at the discretion of the program specialist.

2 – indicates Minor Improvement needed
Suggestions for program improvement will be made by the program specialist.

1 – indicates Major Improvement needed
The program is required to prepare and submit a CTE Improvement Plan to address program deficiencies.


Program Quality Indicators

Standard 1
The current local board has approved the Work-Based Learning program. The Board also supports the use of the Utah State Board of Education (USBE) sponsored Work-Based Learning (WBL) Manual, endorsement criteria, coordinator standards document and partnership training agreements.

Standard 2
All instructors are licensed and appropriately endorsed. This includes attendance at required trainings as well as summer conferences.

Standard 3
WBL interacts with parents, the community, and the school. A three–five year plan is in place with approval of the above groups. The WBL Coordinator attends cone meetings, school council meetings, community councils, etc. at least twice a year.

Standard 4
Needs assessments are conducted as needed.

Standard 5
Skill grids are used with all students to evaluation activities, preparation and participation on sites.

Standard 6
WBL programs integrate CTE Pathways; CTE Introduction coordination (meeting at each junior/middle school team twice a year); elementary career awareness (when possible); and secondary career exploration and preparation activities.

Standard 7
WBL programs are developed in coordination with IEP/SEP/SEOP/504 requirements. All students meeting school requirements are accepted into the program.

Standard 8
Insure that students of different gender, race, color, national origin and disabilities are given equal opportunity for participation in Work-Based Learning activities.

Standard 9
Demonstrate coordination with employers and with other school/community development activities.

Standard 10
Verify that state Work-Based Learning funds are supporting Work-Based Learning personnel, that state funds are matched by the local recipient of funds, and that sufficient budget for Work-Based Learning personnel facilities, materials, equipment and support staff is available. (CTE Director)

Standard 11
Work-Based Learning personnel complete state-sponsored Work-Based Learning coordinator basic training; participates in ongoing professional development activities including USOE Summer Conference; and appropriate professional associations.

Standard 12
Work-Based Learning personnel to participate in state and district/charter school data collection and reporting.


Buck Institute Handbooks

The Buck Institute for Education is a research and evaluation organization dedicated to improving schools by advancing knowledge about the practice of teaching and the process of learning. The Institute develops and pilots innovative educational practices and programs in collaboration with teachers and school administrators, applies these practices in classrooms, evaluates their effects and disseminates the results.

Doing Your Part as a Student Intern: A Handbook for Students

Paid and Unpaid High School Internships: A Handbook for Employers

Supervising and Assessing Student Interns: A Handbook for Supervisors 

Instruction for Employers

The United States Department of Labor and the Utah Wage and Hour Division are aware of and support the internship program. The experiences students gain in the workplace cannot be achieved in any other way. It is important that schools and employers work together to guarantee that proper guidelines are followed to avoid any violations of the law.

Instruction for Employers

Senate Bill 28

An act relating to education: providing for Work-Based Learning programs for interns through public and private schools and institutions of higher education, providing definitions; providing that worker’s compensation medical benefits shall be the exclusive remedy against an employer and school involved in the program for injuries or occupations diseases; providing for criminal background checks in specific situation; and providing for recognition of cooperating employers.

Senate Bill 28: Work-based Learning Programs for Interns

Teen Driving Limits

Federal legislation will affects the ability of 16-17 year-old youth to drive as part of their employment duties.

Teen Driving Limits 

Teens in the Workforce

Today, more teenagers are working at more types of jobs, during more weeks of the year and for longer weekly hours than has ever been true in the past.

Teens in the Workforce 

Working with Teenagers

The late teenager years are a time when young people begin to define more clearly a sense of self and test their ideas and interest in the context of the adult world. For most it is a period of growing independence.

Working with Teenagers