Work-Based Learning Manual - Glossary of Terms
"There are a lot of ways people learn. You can learn in the classroom, but the best learning sometimes takes place actually on the job. First of all, it's a clearly applied skill. Second of all, it's a very specific skill and one that really matters. We're finding that many of our children learn better in an actual work setting, particularly when it is combined with an academic experience."
– Michael O. Leavitt, Former Governor of the State of Utah
Glossary of Terms - PDF
Age Discrimination Act
This federal law was written to prevent discrimination against people because of age, specifically, to protect older people applying for jobs.
This federal law was designed to end discrimination against minorities, and it requires that minority students and job applicants receive the same opportunities as other students and job applicants. The statements declaring businesses to be equal opportunity employers and schools to provide equal opportunity education, comply with affirmative action.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
This federal law prohibits employers, schools and agencies from discriminating against individuals with disabilities regarding employment, public services (especially transportation), public accommodations and telephone services. Access issues such as wheel chair ramps, TDD communications, and Braille signs are addressed in this act.
Apprenticeship offers students the combination of paid, on-the-job training and related classroom training in a specified career. Apprenticeship programs are registered with the United States Department of Labor and are designed to culminate in certified journeyman-level skills attainment and nationally recognized credentials. An apprenticeship is sponsored by an employer, who is responsible for providing journeyman-level mentorship and supervision to the apprentice and seeing that the apprentice completes all required course work.
Areas of Study
The Secondary School Taxonomy (maintained by the National Center of Educational Statistics) is organized into four distinct curricula – Academic, Vocational, Enrichment, and Special Education. The "vocational" – or CTE – curriculum is subdivided into three broad categories: Family and Consumer Sciences Education (FACSE [non-occupational]), General Labor Market Preparation (GLMP), and Special Labor Market Preparation (SLMP) – i.e., career-tech proper. In Utah, the "career-tech proper" curriculum is organized into eight areas of study:
- Agricultural Education
- Business Education
- Family and Consumer Sciences Education
- Health Science Education
- Information Technology Education
- Marketing Education
- Skilled and Technical Sciences Education
- Technology and Engineering Education
Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training (BAT)
The Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training is an agency of the federal United States Department of Labor that governs apprenticeships. Apprentices and their employers are registered with the Bureau of Apprenticeship and Training.
Career and Technical Education (CTE)
Career and Technical Education offers a sequence of courses that provide individuals with the academic and technical knowledge and skills necessary to prepare for further education and for careers. These courses include competency-based applied learning that contribute to the academic knowledge, higher-order reasoning, problem-solving skills, work attitudes, general employability skills, technical skills and occupation-specific skills. Formerly called Vocational Education.
Career Apprenticeship $tarts Here (CA$H)
This program was developed to provide high school students with a carefully supervised combination of on-the-job training and classroom instruction to prepare them to achieve their career goals. See the definition for apprenticeship.
The career fields are aligned with the Holland Codes, which is a way of grouping occupations to help students focus on their career interests. When the relationship between personal characteristics (interests and work values) and potential occupations is apparent, a student more readily engages in his or her career planning process. Making the relationship between a student’s personal characteristics (interests and work values) and potential occupations helps students more readily engage in the career planning process. The Utah Career Fields are as follows:
- Technical (Realistic)
- Scientific (Investigative)
- Arts and Recreation (Artistic)
- Social Humanitarian (Social)
- Marketing and Administration (Enterprising)
- Business Operations (Conventional)
Career fair activities bring the workplace to the school. Employers representing various industry or career areas are invited to come to the schools where they set up booths or display various equipment or other career related items for students to see. Students have the opportunity to visit different demonstrations, hear presentations and talk to industry representatives about various aspects of the represented occupation or industry. Variations on career fairs include Vehicle Days, Uniform Days, Hat Days and Tool Days.
Coherent groupings of courses within Career and Technical Education areas of study that offer students depth of knowledge and skill. Career Pathways are typically linked with specific post-secondary programs culminating with degrees or certificates.
Clinical Work Experience
Clinical work experience consists of structured practical application of previously studied theory. These experiences usually take place in medical settings, where students have opportunities to practice the skills they have learned in the classroom and may be a combination of course work and part-time workplace experiences. Clinical work experiences are different from other structured work experiences in that they are required and graded as part of the student's certification program and some require on-site supervision by a certified teacher or faculty member.
Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance Program (CCGP)
Designed to assist K-12 students through specific self-appraisal and self-improvement activities, Utah’s CCGP promotes effective planning to meet each student's personal education and career goals. The CCGP Student Outcomes drive the delivery of direct services to 100% of Utah students through the Guidance Curriculum, Individual Planning and Responsive Services activities
Educator internships are educational experiences at a work site for teachers or administrators. These usually involve actual participation in the function of a business for the purpose of individual study, skill development, professional growth and awareness of business/industry trends. Such experiences help teachers adapt curriculum and teaching to reflect current workplace applications, practices and needs and also make course work more meaningful and relevant for students.
Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
This federal law is designed to protect youth from employment in conditions detrimental to their health and well being. The law defines child labor restrictions and sets guidelines for youth workers aged 14-17.
Field study is a career awareness and exploration activity where groups of students visit community work sites or other settings. These short, on-site visits allow students to gain first-hand information related to specific topics of classroom study or areas of interest.
A guest speaker is a business professional or industry specialist, who comes into a classroom to present firsthand information about a specific career area or provide reinforcement activities that support the Utah State Core Curriculum and to applied concepts currently being studied. A guest speaker can be used throughout the career development process from awareness to application and are valuable at any grade level.
Hazardous Occupation (HO)
The Fair Labor Standards Act states that minors may perform all work except in seventeen occupations considered too hazardous for youth under age 18. Some exceptions apply for youth aged 16 and 17 with formal work agreements such as apprenticeships.
Individual Education Program (IEP)
An IEP is a statement written by a team of professionals, including the parent, describing a student's current level of functioning, needed special education and related services, annual goals and benchmarks and decisions regarding specified issues (as applicable) relating to an individual student's educational program.
Individuals with Disabilities Education ACT (IDEA)
This federal law requires that a "free and appropriate public education and related services" be provided to children with disabilities. Work-Based Learning is a related service. Anyone providing a service to children with disabilities must work closely with the special education team at the school.
A student internship is an experience where a student, 11th-12th grade, works for an employer for a specified period of time to learn about a particular industry or occupation. Internship programs extend formal classroom learning into the community. Internships are linked to a related internship class, paid or unpaid (usually unpaid), time limited, connected to career goals and the SEOP, and offer opportunities to explore career options in a particular field of work.
A job shadow is a work site experience during which a student spends time, typically three to six hours, one-on-one with an employee observing daily activities and asking questions about the job and industry. Job shadowing is a career awareness and exploration activity that allows students to gather information on a wide variety of career possibilities. Such exploration activities help students make good career decisions and assist them in focusing their studies once a career interest is identified.
Mentorship is a formal, long-term relationship between a student and a professional role model who provides support and encouragement to the student. The mentor assists the student in learning specific skills and/or provides experiences for the student to explore career interests.
National Occupation Information Coordinating Committee (NOICC)
There are 12 competencies established by the National Occupation Information Coordinating Committee as national career development guidelines. These 12 competencies and their indicators are used in Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance Program curricula.
The term nontraditional occupation refers to occupations and jobs in which either men or women make up 25 percent or less of the total number of workers.
Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
This federal law enforces the standards of health and safety at the work site.
A portfolio is a collection of work that documents a student's educational performance over time. It typically includes a range of materials selected by the student. A brief introduction and summary may describe how the portfolio was assembled and what was learned in the compilation process.
A school-based enterprise allows students to put into practice what they learn in the classroom by running an actual small business. The money generated from the business can be used to fund student organizations, materials, equipment, facilities, improvement and other items necessary to maintain or improve the program or school. While participating in these activities, students learn overall business operations such as managing costs, ordering supplies, working under pressure, conserving supplies and maintaining facilities. Junior Achievement can assist a school in setting up a school-based enterprise.
Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS)
In 1991, the U.S. Department of Labor convened the Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills to examine the demands of the workplace and to determine whether the current and future workforce is capable of meeting those demands. The commission reported that reading, writing and mathematical computation are still vital to a strong workforce, while adding personal qualities and thinking skills to the critical skills list. Personal qualities include relating to others, individual responsibility and self-esteem. Thinking skills include critical thinking and problem-solving. These skills and qualities are reflected in the USOE Life Skills.
Section 504 is a clause in the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 requiring that, "no otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall, solely by reason of her or his disability, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving federal financial assistance."
Service learning combines community service with classroom instruction. It focuses on critical, reflective thinking as well as personal and civic responsibility. As an instructional strategy, service learning enhances already existing curricula. It offers teachers a tool that complements learning and increases educational relevancy. It is an approach that combines academic learning with service activities that are structured to address real needs in the community. Service learning offers youth a chance to solve problems and become involved in the community. It opens the door for students to practice what they have learned in school and allows students, as a learner, to make an impact through serving others. This teaching strategy gives students an active role in the community and provides contextual, real world learning experience. Service experiences should be engaging and meaningful. It is engaging when students are actively involved in selecting, planning and carrying out the activity. It is meaningful when it is tied to learning objective and meets real needs identified by the students, teachers and service recipients.
Student Education Occupation Plan (SEOP)
A Utah-specific format for individualized student planning that focuses on recognizing student accomplishments and strengths and student and parent/guardian planning, monitoring, and managing education and career development in grades 7-12.
Student Education Plan (SEP)
Each elementary student is required to develop a Student Education Plan with guidance from school teachers, counselors and parents to set goals, encourage self-awareness and support career-awareness experiences.
Programs to help strengthen the ties between school and work by enhancing students’ Career Field and Pathway exploration and training. These include the following:
- Career and Technical Student Organizations (CTSOs)
- Comprehensive Counseling and Guidance
- Concurrent Enrollment
- Skill Certificate Programs
- Work-Based Learning
Title IX of the Education Amendments to the Civil Rights Act prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in all educational institutions that receive federal financial assistance or that have students receiving federal financial aid. Students and employees are protected by this law.
Utah Occupational Safety and Health Act (UOSHA)
This state law enforces the standards of health and safety at the work site.
Work-Based Learning is one of the myriad components in a successful educational system. It refers to education an experience that occurs in cooperation with business/industry and other community partners. Work-Based Learning is defined as a coherent sequence of career awareness, exploration, job training and experience activities that are coordinated with school-based learning activities. There are Work-Based Learning activities appropriate for every grade level to support students in developing career awareness, exploring careers options, developing appropriate workplace skills and relating academic skills to real-world applications. There are many types of Work-Based Learning activities.
October 26, 2010